Coming from Greenpeace in 1990 Jonathan Smales conceived The Earth Centre, a national millennium project for the UK. It became a pioneering example of sustainable architecture, construction, landscape, energy and land reclamation. Working later with FCBStudios, Will Allsop and Future Systems, Andy Grant, Patrick Bellew and Neil Thomas, Thomas Matthews and Dan Epstein, it was located on a 400-acre former colliery site in Conisbrough in the metropolitan borough of Doncaster, South Yorkshire and opened in 1999.